LR Resources


A preliminary effort to organize my sources by content:Bubbl Map of Schmience

Literature Review Map

There is one organizational anomaly in the pattern of color and size here. I put in the TSM (The Scientific Method) REVISION bubble with only one child and no connections, but despite its asymmetry, haven’t wanted to remove it. This has also pointed out to me that I haven’t really explored the use-of-media aspect of the idea, and so am going to search for some more sources and take another pass at this map before I start my Lit Review in earnest.

These are not tools I have used much, and have been surprised and gratified how this graphic process and representation really does allow me to see features in the data that I had not seen before. I’ve used three of these mind-mapping tools so far, and am looking forward to getting more facile with them and developing some intimacy and expertise with the friendliest of them.

Plus I still have to finish my more thorough reading of the material and summaries. One unfortunate thing about online data is that it means a computer has to be up and running to read them. I hate to print them out, but it is physically much easier to read from paper pages that I can take into the bath, or onto the beach, keep in my pocket or read while waiting for a light to change. Maybe a nook/kindle device allows this, but I cannot see treating them as brutally as I do my casual reading material – all of my books are junkyard dog-eared.


1.  Rosenthal, S. B. (1981). John Dewey: Scientific method and lived immediacy.  Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society, 17(4), 358. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database.
Rosenthal analyzed Dewey’s work around the nature of knowledge, the creation of knowledge objects in the context of personal experience.

2. Tang, X., Coffey, J. E., Elby, A. & L., Daniel, M. (2010). The scientific method and scientific inquiry: Tensions in teaching and learning. Science Education94(1),  29-47. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database.
Tang et al examined the effect of rigid, especially the ordered step construction of the scientific method, suggesting that authentic inquiry would result in better engagement.

3. Gyllenpalm, J., Wickman, P., Holmgren, S. (2010). Teachers’ language on scientific inquiry: Methods of teaching or methods of inquiry? International Journal of Science Education, 32(9), 1151-1172. doi:10.1080/09500690902977457
Teachers’ language in teaching science was examined in the context of how the use of tems like experiment and hypothesis became conflated thereby confusing the distinction between scientific inquiry and science teaching.

4. Windschitl, M., Thompson, J., Braaten, M. (2008). Beyond the scientific method: Model-based inquiry as a new paradigm of preference for school science investigations. Science Education, 92(5), 941-967.  Retrieved from Educational Research Complete database.
Authors argued that a model-based inquiry (MBI) approach to scientific inquiry (SI) is a more epistemic and authentic approach as actually practiced in the work of scientists than the scientific method (TSM). They argued that TSM may persist as the predominant model of SI due to the it ease of integration into constructivist curricula. The scientific method’s failure to test ideas and develop meaning and deeper understanding of concepts as opposed to just testing of predictions. The primary modification of the teaching of scientific inquiry is to precede all testing with the induction of known and readily observable data to form a model that can then expose gaps and limitations that lead to hypotheses that will, when tested improve the predictive quality of the model. They suggested we define science as the “development of evidence-based explanations of the way the natural world works” five features of scientific knowledge which is: testable, revisable, explanatory, conjectural, and generative. Finally they re-conceptualized the end goal of science and particularly MBI as: “develop defensible explanations of the way the natural world works.”

5. Ludovic, B., Pol-Bernard, G., Carl-Philippe R., Safouana, T. (2005). ‘Learning by doing’: A teaching method for active learning in scientific graduate education. European Journal of Engineering Education, 30(1), 105-119.  DOI: 10.1080/03043790512331313868
The authors described a “learning by doing” method, nominally APA due to the French origin of the work (‘apprentissage par l’action’) with these important aspects: real simulation, managing failure, getting results, and the teacher’s role. Advantages described are the greater integration of various scientific disciplines, increase in student freedom and congruence with strongly supported techniques such as Dewey’s actual learning by doing, problem-based learning, and student-centered learning

6. Johnston, J. S. (2002). John Dewey and the role of scientific method in aesthetic experience. Studies in Philosophy & Education, 21(1), 1-15. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database.
Johnson argues against a purely positivist reading of Dewey, while still upholding the empiricism in his philosophy. The key point being that scientific inquiry is a subset of inquiry in general which he interprets Dewey as defining as a consummatory aesthetic experience.  “One could conclude that, given Dewey’s insistence on the truly integral nature of an inquiry that is aesthetic, thinking in an aesthetic experience must be of the highest quality precisely because of its capacity for unification, for wholeness. There is not a specialized separation into inference, causation, judgment, hypothesis formation, etc. that is found in more logical pursuits. There is an organic wholeness of thought that lends itself to the situation being judged. The experiential data, as Dewey might put it, is not “formed” into a statement; rather, it is beheld, experienced. “Those who are called artists have for their subject matter the qualities of things of direct experience; “intellectual” inquirers deal with these qualities at one remove, through the medium of symbols that stand for qualities but are not significant in their immediate presence. The ultimate difference is enormous as far as the technique of thought and emotion are concerned. But there is no difference as far as dependence on emotionalized ideas and subconscious maturing are concerned. Thinking directly in terms of colors, tones, images, is a different operation technically from thinking in words” (AE, p. 80). a

7. Kepler, L. (1998). Fun with the scientific method. Instructor-Intermediate, 108(2), 78. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database.
Ms. Kepler described a science project undertaken in her 3 grade classroom that grew spontaneously form the observation that the aquarium in her classroom was developing a green tint on the glass that obscured the fish. She described in detail the process by which her class attempted to solve the problem of the disappearing fish by use of the scientific method and broke down the process into the discrete steps of the classical scientific method.

8. Mutonyi, H., Nielsen, W., Nashon, S. (2007). Building scientific literacy in HIV/AIDS education: A case study of Uganda. International Journal of Science Education, 29(11), 1363-1385. DOI: 10.1080/09500690601028925
 “Abstract: The term scientific literacy is defined differently in different contexts. The term literacy simply refers to the ability for one to read and write, but recent studies in language literacy have extended this definition. New literacy research seeks a redefinition in terms of how skills are used rather than how they are learned. Contemporary perspectives on literacy as a transfer of learned skills into daily life practises capture the understanding of what it means to be scientifically literate. Scientific literacy requires students to be able to use their scientific knowledge independently in the everyday world. Some models for teaching towards scientific literacy have been suggested including inquiry-based learning embedded in constructivist epistemologies. The inquiry-based model is posited to be effective at bringing about in-depth understanding of scientific concepts through engaging students’ preconceptions. In order to establish whether directly engaging students’ preconceptions can lead to in-depth understanding of the science of HIV/AIDS, a case study was designed to elucidate students’ prior knowledge. From questionnaires and classroom observations, Ugandan Grade 11 students’ persistent preconceptions were explored in follow-up focus group discussions. The inquiry process was used to engage students with their own perceptions of HIV/AIDS during the focus group discussions. Findings suggest that students need to dialogue with each other as they reflect on their beliefs about HIV/AIDS. Dialogue enabled students to challenge their beliefs while making connections between ‘school’ and ‘home’ knowledge.”

9. Shen, J. (2010). Nurturing students’ critical knowledge using technology-enhanced scaffolding strategies in science education. Journal of Science Education & Technology, 19(1), 1-12. DOI: 10.1007/s10956-009-9183-1;
“Abstract: Critique is central to the development of scientific knowledge. From a cognitive perspective, critique can be used to enhance understanding. From a social perspective, critique serves to maintain the standards of a professional field. In science education, it is of tremendous value to diagnose and nurture students’ critical knowledge. How students develop and apply criteria for critique, however, remains unclear. What factors influence students’ performance of critique, and how can educators incorporate technology-enhanced scaffolding strategies to help diagnose and nurture students’ critical knowledge? In this paper, I define critical knowledge as the criteria people use to evaluate other knowledge, the ability to use these criteria across contexts, and the reflective understanding of such processes. Building on existing literature, I develop a conceptual framework that describes the components and processes involved in a critique activity. Using this framework, I discuss the application of technology-enhanced scaffolding strategies to facilitate critique activities in science classrooms.”

10. McNeill, K. L., Pimentel, D. S. (2010). Scientific discourse in three urban classrooms: The role of the teacher in engaging high school students in argumentation. Science Education, 94(2), 203-229.
“Abstract: Argumentation is a core practice of science and has recently been advocated as an essential goal of science education. Our research focuses on the discourse in urban high school science classrooms in which the teachers used the same global climate change curriculum. We analyzed transcripts from three teachers’ classrooms examining both the argument structure as well the dialogic interactions between students. Between 19% and 35% of the discourse focused on scientific argumentation in that students were using evidence and reasoning to justify their claims. Yet in terms of dialogic interactions, only one teacher’s classroom was characterized by student-to-student interactions and students explicitly supporting or refuting the ideas presented by their peers. This teacher’s use of open questions appeared to encourage students to construct and justify their claims using both their scientific and everyday knowledge. Furthermore, her explicit connections to previous students’ comments appeared to encourage students to consider multiple views, reflect on their thinking and reflect on the thinking of their classmates. This study suggests that a teacher’s use of open-ended questions may play a key role in supporting students in argumentation in terms of both providing evidence and reasoning for students’ claims and encouraging dialogic interactions between students.”

11. Nagl, M. G., Obadović, D., Stojanović, M. (2010). Scientific method in teaching physics in languages and social sciences department of high-schools. AIP Conference Proceedings, 1203(1), 1378-1382. DOI: 10.1063/1.3322375
“Abstract: The expansion of scientific materials in the last few decades, demands that the contemporary educational system should select and develop methods of effective learning in the process of acquiring skills and knowledge usable and feasible for a longer period of time. Grammar schools as general educational institutions possess all that is necessary for the development of new teaching methods and fitting into contemporary social tendencies. In the languages and social sciences department in of grammar schools physics is the only natural sciences subject present during all four years. The classical approach to teaching is tiring as such and creates aversion towards learning physic when it deals with pupils oriented towards social sciences. The introduction of scientific methods raises the motivation to a substantial level and when applied both the teacher and pupils forget when the class starts or ends. The assignment has shown the analysis of initial knowledge of physics of the pupils attending the first grade of languages and social sciences department of grammar schools as a preparation for the introduction of the scientific method, the analysis of the initial test with the topic of gravitation, as well as the analysis of the final test after applying the scientific method through the topic of gravitation. The introduction of the scientific method has duly justified the expectations and resulted in increasing the level of achievement among the pupils in the experimental class.”

12. Poli, D. (2011). Sex & the scientific method: Using condoms to engage college students. American Biology Teacher, 73(6), 348-352. DOI:10.1525/abt.2011.73.6.8.
“Abstract: Teaching the scientific method can be a challenge for any teacher, and finding a way to engage students can become more difficult as culture changes. Sex has always been an interesting and popular topic for students, so I used mini-lessons in safer sex, STIs, and condoms as tools to teach the scientific method. Student engagement and effort were higher than usual.”

13. Morge, L. (2005). Teacher–pupil interaction: A study of hidden beliefs in conclusion phases. International Journal of Science Education, 27(8), 935-956. DOI: 10.1080/09500690500068600
“Abstract: This article is a contribution to the characterization of teacher–pupil interactions during scientific inquiry. Attention is paid to conclusion phases, as it is at this point in the interaction that a pupil’s production is to be accepted or rejected. Sixteen sessions taught by eight teachers in junior high schools and high schools were recorded, transcribed and analysed. In interpreting the teacher–pupil interactions, the presence of hidden epistemological and pedagogical beliefs in the conclusion phases have been discerned. The conclusion phase corresponds to a dogmatic (versus constructivist) view of science and the teaching of science if the pupil’s production is judged for its veracity in relation to the teacher’s scientific knowledge (versus its validity in relation to knowledge shared by both pupil and teacher). A discussion follows on the conditions for the teacher’s building a relationship between this aspect of his/her practice and his/her beliefs. The impact of this research on teacher training is also considered.”

14. Karsai, I., Kampis, G. (2010). The crossroads between biology and mathematics: The scientific method as the basics of scientific literacy. BioScience, 60(8), 632-638. DOI: 10.1525/bio.2010.60.8.9
“Abstract: Biology is changing and becoming more quantitative. Research is creating new challenges that need to be addressed in education as well. New educational initiatives focus on combining laboratory procedures with mathematical skills, yet it seems that most curricula center on a single relationship between scientific knowledge and scientific method: that of the validity of knowledge claims, judged in terms of their consistency with data. Collecting data and obtaining results (however quantitative) are commonly part of science, but are not science itself. We envision that the operative use of the complete scientific method will play a critical role in providing the necessary underpinning for the integration of math and biology at various professional levels.”

15.  Montenegro, M.  (2011, Sept. 1). The art of science learning. Seed Magazine. Retrieved online Aug 30 from
Montenegro argued that reintegrating an artistic stance into the exploration of science can add a more holistic and nuanced approach. This he hopes can lead to a renovation in scientifc interest.

16. Maeda, J. (2010, December 27). On meaningful observation. Seed Magazine. Retrieved online Aug 30, 2011 from
“Adding art and design to science education would put a bit of humanity back into the innovation engine and lead to the most meaningful kind of progress.” Maeda, the president of Rhode Island Institute of Design (RISD) “rizdee” suggested that our culture might do well to harness the profound similarity between art and true science. “Artists do research with an open-mindedness and rigorous inquiry unseen in most other disciplines, except true science.” He asked:  “What if, just like STEM is made up of science, technology, engineering and math, we had IDEA, made of intuition, design, emotion, and art—all the things that make us humans feel, well, human? It seems to me that if we use this moment to reassess our values, putting just a little bit of our humanity back into America’s innovation engines will lead to the most meaningful kind of progress.

17. Antonelli, P. ( 2011, February 1). On governing by design. Seed Magazine.  Retrieved online Aug. 30, 2011 from
She explored the historic use of design as a political tool from the pyramids to Beaubourg. summing up the outcome of a meeting organized by the World Economic Forum in Dubai in November 2009, in which 70 groups of experts from around the world were asked to contribute ideas to improve global institutions, the so-called Global Agenda Council on Design created a set of design principles suitable also for policymakers, based on the idea that “design is an agent of change that enables us to understand complex changes and problems, and to turn them into something useful. Tackling today’s global challenges will require radical thinking, creative solutions, and collaborative action.” They concluded: “what we advocate: design applied not as a mere aesthetic or functional tool but as a conceptual method, based on scenarios that keep human beings in focus, with the means consequently allotted in elegant, economic, and organic ways to achieve the imagined goals.”

18. Jones,T. (2009, December 10). Surreal science. Seed Magazine. Retrieved online Aug 30 from
Jones used a surrealist party game called the Exquisite Corpse where a collaborative drawing is made with on a folded sheet of paper so that each addition by each subsequent artist is done in ignorance of the previous additions. He asked a group of writers, scientists, school children, and others to make a drawing of what science meant to them..

19. Wilhelm, J. D., & Wilhelm, P. J. (2010). Inquiring minds learn to read, write, and think: Reaching all learners through inquiry. Middle School Journal, 41(5),39-46. Retrieved from Educational Research Complete database.
Carl Shuptrine wrote this summary: While exploring the problem of student motivation J. Wilhelm and P. Wilhelm (2010) found that that creating conditions of flow experience in a curriculum, as characterized by Czikszentmihalyi (1990), were highly beneficial to student engagement and learning. They also stated that traditional methods of information transmission meet none of the requirements of flow, but identified inquiry approaches as meeting all of these requirements. They continued by outlining a 3-step process instructors could use to implement an inquiry model into a curriculum. This included devising essential questions, identifying culminating projects, and finally tailoring sequenced instruction for each student.” Thanks Carl f9r the referenece

20. Lehrer, J. (2008, January 16). The future of science…is art? Seed Magazine. Retrieved online Aug. 30, 2011 from
Lehrer analyzed the use and integration of art into scientific expression. Quoting Niels Bohr “When it comes to atoms, language can be used only as in poetry.” Pointing out how ordinary words couldn’t capture the data, and how Bohr’s was fascinated by cubist painters, and the author argues that the receding certainty and unity predicted by neuroscientists and physicist in the height of the modern period, demonstrates the ineffable nature of some extremely complex scientific ideas. He arguers that art has always attacked the ineffable and struggled to make it tangible, and that this, as in Bohr’s revelation though cubism may be the essence of approaching these most important theories.

One thought on “LR Resources

  1. Nesdon,

    Your sources suggest that you are developing alternative methods for teaching science that strive to engage students more so than traditional rote scientific method. The “Inquiry” model has popped up in much of the literature I have been reviewing as well and has piqued my interest considerably. The theory behind Inquiry model just seems to make sense as far as generating engagement. Check out the first article on my LR resources page, it has some good info on Inquiry models.
    “Inquiring minds learn to read, write, and think: Reaching all learners through inquiry.”

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